Blackheads, also called open comedones, are darkened flat spots that form when pores are clogged with a mixture of sebum and dead skin cells. The reason why they are called blackheads is because of their dark appearance; which is caused by tightly packed dark colored skin cells.
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In general, blackheads are caused by dirt and unclean skin conditions. They are most widespread in the T-zone (the area that consists of your forehead, nose, mouth and chin), where the sebaceous glands are extremely active. If you don't treat your blackheads properly, they can turn into dark brown acne lesions and cause serious skin inflammation.
A daily skin cleansing regime is necessary to reduce the development of blackheads. Wash the face twice per day with a salicylic acid skin cleanser to remove the dirt from blocked pores and excess oil on skin's surface. Exfoliators are ideal to massage your face and wipe away any dead skin and debris. Recently, pore strips were introduced to help pull out all the dirt, oil and blackheads that build-up in pores - especially on your nose. Applying a skin toner after cleansing will encourage the pores to close, so that bacteria or oils can't penetrate the pores easily.